Documentary channel

What happens when a woman stands alone by an arterial road in Delhi

Sameera Jain's documentary explores the experience of being a woman in public spaces in the capital.

A woman stands by the side of Outer Ring Road in Paschim Vihar in west Delhi. She is alone and seems to be going nowhere. A car pulls up alongside her, its lights blinking first hopefully and then insistently. She moves a few steps backwards, clearly signalling her disinterest. The car reverses. She takes several steps backwards again. The car reverses again.

The seemingly working-class woman, actually Lady Irwin College professor Komita Dhanda, was participating in an experiment being conducted by filmmaker Sameera Jain for her documentary Mera Apna Sheher, which was produced by the Public Service Broadcasting Trust. Dhanda agreed to hang around for a few hours at various public places in the capital to test the reactions of people, especially the men, around her. The results are eye-popping even though we know that Rita Banerjee’s camera crew is at a safe, discreet distance from Dhanda, ready to emerge out of hiding if things got hairy (as they almost did in Paschim Vihar).

The immediate conclusion to be drawn from Dhanda’s act of loitering is that women do not loiter. They do not hang around public places, unlike men. They cannot stand next to cigarette sellers for as long as they please or stretch out in a park if they feel like. They must finish their chores and vacate the public space that they have occupied at the soonest.

Women and public space

It is three years old and was made before Delhi came to be known as India’s “rape capital”, but Mera Apna Sheher assumes renewed relevance every time a woman is sexually assaulted in public. The latest high-profile case in Delhi involves a multinational company executive who was raped allegedly by her call taxi driver. The incident is a reminder of the fragile peace between the city’s female residents and the streets. The media has screamed itself hoarse discussing the hows and the whys over the years, so Jain takes a different tack in Mera Apna Sheher. She focuses on the experience of women in public places – how they are watched, and how they see the ones who are watching them.



“There is a sense of not belonging, of not having a right over public spaces," said Jain, who edits and directs documentaries apart from conducting courses about the filmmaking form. “One realised that the problem is not personal any more. The problem has become invisible by being normalised. You can talk about incidents of molestation or rape and people will respond, but when you speak of being uncomfortable, you will sometimes get an askance response.”

Jain has lived in Delhi all her life and continues to use public transport. (“I don’t like driving,” she said.) She worked around the challenge of presenting a far too common problem by playing with the documentary form. Mera Apna Sheher goes beyond Dhanda’s experiment. Jain also follows working-class women learning to be drivers and throws in a self-defence class, where schoolgirls are taught to use their hands and feet against assaulters.

“Problems related to women have been addressed ad nauseam in cinema and documentary, so the challenge was to do it in a way that you would feel that there was something to be observed and addressed,” Jain said. “I started to look at work that was not predictable, that deliberately did not satisfy any of the expectations that audiences might have from the film.”

The road not taken

Mera Apna Sheher presents no direct reading or solutions into the challenges faced by women in navigating Delhi. Instead, the 70-minute film brings us close to the experience of being out in the open in Delhi. Cameras fitted inside the cars and on the dashboards reveal how the trainees are perceived by other drivers, for instance. “The idea was to represent the experience, so that this experience, and not the stance or the position, filters through,” Jain said. “Therefore, it also became important to look at women who are in semi-public spaces. The drivers are in a cocoon inside the car, but it is fragile and illusory. They are also highly spirited and are able to negotiate the problem.”

One of the most stirring images in the documentary is a dashboard view of one of the young women staring at the road ahead of her, unmindful of the attention and fully focused on her future.

Finding the right person to stage the public spaces experiment proved more challenging than following the trainee drivers, who were being supported by a non-governmental organisation. Jain needed somebody who did not just have the “ability and the spunk” to stand around and be stared at, but could also “straddle class ambiguity”. Sudhanva Deshpande, an actor and director with the theatre group Jana Natya Manch, suggested Dhanda to Jain. “I was thrilled to meet her,” Jain said. “She had the attitude, and many of the ideas in the film are hers in terms of the locations. For instance, she suggested the Outer Ring Road in Paschim Vihar. She said, ‘Let’s go there for five minutes and it [the attempted pick-up] will happen.’”

Not just a Delhi documentary

Mera Apna Sheher will ring painfully true for Delhi residents, but the experiences of its female subjects are by no means particular to that city. “Although the film is set in Delhi, it connects with people all over,” Jain observed. “I have shown it in several places, including at a film festival in Yamagata in Japan, and nobody has once said to me, how terrible your city is. Everybody can identify with the issue since it is a symptom of a larger problem.”

The documentary does not present pat solutions about why Delhi treats its women in a manner that routinely invites censure and horror, but Jain does have a theory. “Delhi being the seat of political power, it has drawn a certain kind of migrant over the decades,” she said. “I say this very carefully, since Bombay too is a city of migrants, as are other cities. But migration to Delhi brings with it anonymity, a certain pervasive lack of a community sense. Bombay has a better sense of being a metropolitan hub. In Delhi, you still get the semi-rural experience. It is not quite a metropolis in its spirit and yet it is the cutthroat seat of power. This alienation results in a lot of hostility.”

Video clip courtesy Public Service Broadcasting Trust.

We welcome your comments at letters@scroll.in.
Sponsored Content BY 

How sustainable farming practices can secure India's food for the future

India is home to 15% of the world’s undernourished population.

Food security is a pressing problem in India and in the world. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN (FAO), it is estimated that over 190 million people go hungry every day in the country.

Evidence for India’s food challenge can be found in the fact that the yield per hectare of rice, one of India’s principal crops, is 2177 kgs per hectare, lagging behind countries such as China and Brazil that have yield rates of 4263 kgs/hectare and 3265 kgs/hectare respectively. The cereal yield per hectare in the country is also 2,981 kgs per hectare, lagging far behind countries such as China, Japan and the US.

The slow growth of agricultural production in India can be attributed to an inefficient rural transport system, lack of awareness about the treatment of crops, limited access to modern farming technology and the shrinking agricultural land due to urbanization. Add to that, an irregular monsoon and the fact that 63% of agricultural land is dependent on rainfall further increase the difficulties we face.

Despite these odds, there is huge potential for India to increase its agricultural productivity to meet the food requirements of its growing population.

The good news is that experience in India and other countries shows that the adoption of sustainable farming practices can increase both productivity and reduce ecological harm.

Sustainable agriculture techniques enable higher resource efficiency – they help produce greater agricultural output while using lesser land, water and energy, ensuring profitability for the farmer. These essentially include methods that, among other things, protect and enhance the crops and the soil, improve water absorption and use efficient seed treatments. While Indian farmers have traditionally followed these principles, new technology now makes them more effective.

For example, for soil enhancement, certified biodegradable mulch films are now available. A mulch film is a layer of protective material applied to soil to conserve moisture and fertility. Most mulch films used in agriculture today are made of polyethylene (PE), which has the unwanted overhead of disposal. It is a labour intensive and time-consuming process to remove the PE mulch film after usage. If not done, it affects soil quality and hence, crop yield. An independently certified biodegradable mulch film, on the other hand, is directly absorbed by the microorganisms in the soil. It conserves the soil properties, eliminates soil contamination, and saves the labor cost that comes with PE mulch films.

The other perpetual challenge for India’s farms is the availability of water. Many food crops like rice and sugarcane have a high-water requirement. In a country like India, where majority of the agricultural land is rain-fed, low rainfall years can wreak havoc for crops and cause a slew of other problems - a surge in crop prices and a reduction in access to essential food items. Again, Indian farmers have long experience in water conservation that can now be enhanced through technology.

Seeds can now be treated with enhancements that help them improve their root systems. This leads to more efficient water absorption.

In addition to soil and water management, the third big factor, better seed treatment, can also significantly improve crop health and boost productivity. These solutions include application of fungicides and insecticides that protect the seed from unwanted fungi and parasites that can damage crops or hinder growth, and increase productivity.

While sustainable agriculture through soil, water and seed management can increase crop yields, an efficient warehousing and distribution system is also necessary to ensure that the output reaches the consumers. According to a study by CIPHET, Indian government’s harvest-research body, up to 67 million tons of food get wasted every year — a quantity equivalent to that consumed by the entire state of Bihar in a year. Perishables, such as fruits and vegetables, end up rotting in store houses or during transportation due to pests, erratic weather and the lack of modern storage facilities. In fact, simply bringing down food wastage and increasing the efficiency in distribution alone can significantly help improve food security. Innovations such as special tarpaulins, that keep perishables cool during transit, and more efficient insulation solutions can reduce rotting and reduce energy usage in cold storage.

Thus, all three aspects — production, storage, and distribution — need to be optimized if India is to feed its ever-growing population.

One company working to drive increased sustainability down the entire agriculture value chain is BASF. For example, the company offers cutting edge seed treatments that protect crops from disease and provide plant health benefits such as enhanced vitality and better tolerance for stress and cold. In addition, BASF has developed a biodegradable mulch film from its ecovio® bioplastic that is certified compostable – meaning farmers can reap the benefits of better soil without risk of contamination or increased labor costs. These and more of the company’s innovations are helping farmers in India achieve higher and more sustainable yields.

Of course, products are only one part of the solution. The company also recognizes the importance of training farmers in sustainable farming practices and in the safe use of its products. To this end, BASF engaged in a widespread farmer outreach program called Samruddhi from 2007 to 2014. Their ‘Suraksha Hamesha’ (safety always) program reached over 23,000 farmers and 4,000 spray men across India in 2016 alone. In addition to training, the company also offers a ‘Sanrakshan® Kit’ to farmers that includes personal protection tools and equipment. All these efforts serve to spread awareness about the sustainable and responsible use of crop protection products – ensuring that farmers stay safe while producing good quality food.

Interested in learning more about BASF’s work in sustainable agriculture? See here.

This article was produced by the Scroll marketing team on behalf of BASF and not by the Scroll editorial team.