Swachh Bharat

Modi’s toilet-building mission gets off to a very slow start

The government has so far been able to assist just 10% of the rural households without toilets. It has four years to help the remaining 99 million households.

Of more than 110 million rural households without toilets across India in 2012, the government has been able to assist 11 million households in building toilets. That means, nearly 99 million households need toilets over the next four years, if the government is to meet the target set by the Swacch Bharat Abhiyan (Clean India Campaign) by October 2, 2019.

It also means the government will need to set aside lots more money. About 88% of the Rs 25,885 crore ($4 billion) that Delhi set aside over the last 15 years for various sanitation campaigns has been spent. The Swachh Bharat Abhiyan, launched on October 2, 2014 by Prime Minister Narendra Modi, is the latest such campaign, aimed at ensuring an open-defecation-free India by October 2, 2019.

More than 595 million Indians were defecating in the open in 2014, according to data released by UNICEF.

The Atal Bihari Vajpayee’s government launched India’s first official, nationwide sanitation programme, the Total Sanitation Campaign  in 1999.

This was later changed to Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan in October 2012.



The government now plans a legislation that allows the local governments to punish people who are found spitting, urinating and throwing garbage, thus hoping to provide legal teeth to the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan, which hopes to provide all rural households with toilets and kickstart solid- and liquid-waste management in gram panchayats (village councils).


Source: Swachh Bharat Abhiyan


About 88% (Rs 22,918 crore) of Rs 25,885 crore allocated/released have been spent on sanitation till now.

The worst year was 1999-2001, the year Atal Bihari Vajpayee was the prime minister and no projects were executed during this time period: No money was spent, although Rs 156 crore was released. The high point, if you can say that, was 2014-15 when the spending skyrocketed to 123% of the allocation of Rs 3,569 crore: Rs 4,380 crore was spent.


Source: Swachh Bharat Abhiyan


With nearly 99 million households still needed by 2019, India will need to maintain the toilet-building pace and make money available.

Under Swachh Bharat Abhiyan, Rs 2 lakh is provided to schools or panchayats for the construction of community sanitary complexes. The incentive for the construction of individual household latrines has been raised from Rs 10,000 to Rs 12,000, with Rs 9,000  to be paid by Delhi and Rs 3,000 by the states.

Let us look at how the states fare:


Source: Swachh Bharat Abhiyan


West Bengal has used almost 92% of available funds, followed by Odisha with 45%. Since the planning of the scheme now depends on the states, clearing projects takes longer.

Most of the Swacch Bharat money was spent on household toilets, followed by toilets in schools.

Dubious data: Nagaland spends 1,839% of money, Gujarat 227%

The data on states’ share of spending on toilets is unclear. In some cases, such as Nagaland and Gujarat, the data reveal a fund utilisation of 1,839% and 227%, respectively.


Source: Swachh Bharat Abhiyan


West Bengal has seemingly exceeded its mission objectives with the number of toilets built being 8% more than its target. Gujarat has met 94% of its target, while Jharkhand has achieved 49.5%.

IndiaSpend had earlier reported how Jammu and Kashmir did not use 96% of the money granted for the scheme and was 86% short of the 2014-15 target for household latrines.

This article was originally published on IndiaSpend.com, a data-driven and public-interest journalism non-profit.

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Water challenges in urban India

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Recycling and harvesting: Raw sewage water which is dumped into oceans damages the coastal eco-system. Instead, this could be used as a cheaper alternative to fresh water for industrial purposes. According to a 2011 World Bank report, 13% of total freshwater withdrawal in India is for industrial use. What’s more, the industrial demand for water is expected to grow at a rate of 4.2% per year till 2025. Much of this demand can be met by recycling and treating sewage water. In Mumbai for example, 3000 MLD of sewage water is released, almost 80% of fresh water availability. This can be purified and utilised for industrial needs. An example of recycled sewage water being used for industrial purpose is the 30 MLD waste water treatment facility at Gandhinagar and Anjar in Gujarat set up by Welspun India Ltd.

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This article was produced by the Scroll marketing team on behalf of BASF and not by the Scroll editorial team.