Human bondage

Who among India’s young are likely to become modern slaves?

India has the largest youth population as well as the highest number of people trapped in forced labour and trafficking.

Last month, the United Nations Population Fund released its State of the World’s population report. At the same time, an international activist group, the Walk Free Foundation, released its Global Slavery Index 2014, which estimates the global extent of forced labour, human trafficking and other forms of slavery. In both reports, India gets the highest rankings.

With 113 million people aged 15-29 years, India has the largest youth population in the world.

India also has the largest number of people trapped in slavery – 14.2 million people.

How do these two groups intersect? Among India’s young people, who are the most vulnerable to slavery?

The report says that bonded labour and human trafficking become prevalent when people are vulnerable, and they are the most vulnerable when unemployed or engaged in activities that are not well regulated and do not provide basic social protection in the form of decent work, sufficient income and a good place to live in.

The Global Slavery Index points out that, in India, such labour could be in brick kilns, carpet-weaving, embroidery, agriculture, domestic servitude, mining and organised begging rings.

While there is no data for begging rings, the 68th round of the National Sample Survey (2011-2012) shows that the engagement in both agriculture and non-agricultural labour goes down as income levels rise. Salaried jobs which have a measure of social security are dominated by the richest 20%, while the poorest 20% form the largest chunk of agricultural labour.



So if you are poor, you are more likely to be trapped in slavery. Poverty rates in India are higher among Dalits, Adivasis, Muslims and other backward classes. This makes young people from these social groups more vulnerable to forced labour and trafficking.





The other social determinant of vulnerability to slavery is gender. The report says that “with few opportunities for education, meaningful employment or access to reproductive rights,” young women are at the risk of being “recruited with promises of non-existent jobs and later sold for sexual exploitation, or forced into sham marriages.”

Data shows that the literacy rates among women are lower.



Women’s participation in the labour force is also significantly lower than men.



Strikingly, among working age women, the labour force participation rate – the ratio between the size of the labour force and the number of all the people belonging to the same age group – is the lowest among women aged 15-29 years. This rate is even lower for rural women as compared to urban women.



So if you are young, your chances of being trapped in trafficking and forced labour are higher if are poor, if you belong to Dalit, Adivasi and Muslim communities, if you are a woman and live in a village.

If these vulnerabilities are visualised as an intersecting venn diagram, the young Indian who emerges as the most susceptible to modern slavery is a young woman who lives in a village and belongs to Dalit, Adivasi, Muslim communities.

We welcome your comments at letters@scroll.in.
Sponsored Content BY 

Not just for experts: How videography is poised for a disruption

Digital solutions are making sure it’s easier than ever to express your creativity in moving images.

Where was the last time you saw art? Chances are on a screen, either on your phone or your computer. Stunning photography and intricate doodles are a frequent occurrence in the social feeds of many. That’s the defining feature of art in the 21st century - it fits in your pocket, pretty much everyone’s pocket. It is no more dictated by just a few elite players - renowned artists, museum curators, art critics, art fair promoters and powerful gallery owners. The digital age is spawning creators who choose to be defined by their creativity more than their skills. The negligible incubation time of digital art has enabled experimentation at staggering levels. Just a few minutes of browsing on the online art community, DeviantArt, is enough to gauge the scope of what digital art can achieve.

Sure enough, in the 21st century, entire creative industries are getting democratised like never before. Take photography, for example. Digital photography enabled everyone to capture a memory, and then convert it into personalised artwork with a plethora of editing options. Apps like Instagram reduced the learning curve even further with its set of filters that could lend character to even unremarkable snaps. Prisma further helped to make photos look like paintings, shaving off several more steps in the editing process. Now, yet another industry is showing similar signs of disruption – videography.

Once burdened by unreliable film, bulky cameras and prohibitive production costs, videography is now accessible to anyone with a smartphone and a decent Internet bandwidth. A lay person casually using social media today has so many video types and platforms to choose from - looping Vine videos, staccato Musical.lys, GIFs, Instagram stories, YouTube channels and many more. Videos are indeed fast emerging as the next front of expression online, and so are the digital solutions to support video creation.

One such example is Vizmato, an app which enables anyone with a smartphone to create professional-looking videos minus the learning curve required to master heavy, desktop software. It makes it easy to shoot 720p or 1080p HD videos with a choice of more than 40 visual effects. This fuss- free app is essentially like three apps built into one - a camcorder with live effects, a feature-rich video editor and a video sharing platform.

With Vizmato, the creative process starts at the shooting stage itself as it enables live application of themes and effects. Choose from hip hop, noir, haunted, vintage and many more.

The variety of filters available on Vizmato
The variety of filters available on Vizmato

Or you can simply choose to unleash your creativity at the editing stage; the possibilities are endless. Vizmato simplifies the core editing process by making it easier to apply cuts and join and reverse clips so your video can flow exactly the way you envisioned. Once the video is edited, you can use a variety of interesting effects to give your video that extra edge.

The RGB split, Inset and Fluidic effects.
The RGB split, Inset and Fluidic effects.

You can even choose music and sound effects to go with your clip; there’s nothing like applause at the right moment, or a laugh track at the crack of the worst joke.

Or just annotated GIFs customised for each moment.

Vizmato is the latest offering from Global Delight, which builds cross-platform audio, video and photography applications. It is the Indian developer that created award-winning iPhone apps such as Camera Plus, Camera Plus Pro and the Boom series. Vizmato is an upgrade of its hugely popular app Game Your Video, one of the winners of the Macworld Best of Show 2012. The overhauled Vizmato, in essence, brings the Instagram functionality to videos. With instant themes, filters and effects at your disposal, you can feel like the director of a sci-fi film, horror movie or a romance drama, all within a single video clip. It even provides an in-built video-sharing platform, Popular, to which you can upload your creations and gain visibility and feedback.

Play

So, whether you’re into making the most interesting Vines or shooting your take on Ed Sheeran’s ‘Shape of You’, experience for yourself how Vizmato has made video creation addictively simple. Android users can download the app here and iOS users will have their version in January.

This article was produced by the Scroll marketing team on behalf of Vizmato and not by the Scroll editorial team.