note demonetisation

The lure of collective suffering: Why India's poor are embracing the pain of demonetisation

From vegetable markets to barber shops, they are willing to put up with hardship in the nation's interest.

A sabzi mandi is an important place for thinking about the most significant aspects of social life. It isn’t just a place where the vitals of life are delivered and distributed to the wider population. A mandi is the site where thousands of transport nodes merge, the country’s precariat (the workforce with the most insecure conditions of life) finds employment, street-side vegetable vendors further their own precarious livelihoods, large and small farmers bargain for their living, wholesale traders influence the supply chain, and the state keeps an eye on the most fundamental processes of sustenance. The mandi is a market of lives. It is a great place to get a sense of the warp and woof of daily existence.

Khandsa sabzi mandi in Gurgaon is one of four such markets in the district in Haryana. It is different from the other three in that it is now only a fruit and vegetable mandi, whereas the others also deal in grains. Rakesh Kumar and Ramchand (not their real names) own a potato and onion wholesale dealership here. A few days after the Great Event of November 8, they told me that business was substantially down. Vegetables are perishable commodities, so they have had to sell at lower prices to whoever has the proper notes to buy. At the mandi, cash has always been king. But, Rakesh quickly added that “in the interest of the nation”, he and his partner were willing to put up with the losses to their business “for the few months it will take things to stabilise”. As we sat in the company storage shed, the potatoes and onions were starting to go slightly off, but the thoughts of the owners gave off a peculiar fragrance of purity.

Even on weekday evenings, my barber’s shop has a queue. But on my visit last Thursday, I eased myself into a chair without any wait at all. There were no other customers in the shop, but the room was full with voluble conversation about the Great Event. The owner and his two employees were discussing how they had had to spend days in bank queues without much to show for it, and how their business was suffering because it was difficult to provide change for Rs 2,000 notes. The owner said that he had heard that a South Indian businessman had recently spent several hundred crores on his daughter’s wedding and that black money played a big role in elections. How come “these people are never caught”, he added. But, despite personal experience of hardship, there was clear reticence in condemning the Great Event at this barber’s shop. The owner said that it might help in reducing the number of illegal transactions in real estate and one of his employees added that some good might come of it after all.

It is not difficult to account for the rosy accounts of demonetisation by those whose lives are unlikely to be deeply affected by the event, others who have different ways and means of accessing acceptable money, the group with unshakeable political loyalties, and those among whom patriotism is a middle-class pastime. But how to account for the opinions of that proportion of the population for whom neither personal contacts nor patriotism are adequate to cover for the palpable economic harm that the Great Event has caused (and will continue to generate in the future)?

Ramchand from Khandsa mandi told me that he had had to employ his son in the business since the college degrees obtained from small-town Harayana are worthless in the job market. And barber shops across India are one of the many sites of informal labour that has been deeply affected by the magic trick of the state. These are sites of a great deal of precarious livelihoods, deeply affected by the most minor of economic events. And what happened on November 8 was hardly that.

The optimism at the announcement of one’s hanging requires explanation. How is it that the most vulnerable are happy to join cause with the most powerful?

In it together

The most significant narrative that has gathered around demonetisation is that of the need for collective suffering on behalf of the nation. Collective suffering. The rich and the poor, those with the wherewithal to shift large amounts of money across national borders and those who sell vegetables and peanuts within it, are all asked to sacrifice for a greater cause. Suffering makes you free. Leiden macht frei.

In recent times, there has been a persistent effort to make suffering a part of the Indian collective consciousness. This has borne fruit and there are many, already burdened with substantial amounts of misery, who do not want to be part of a national shame and not suffer. The key aspect in all this is to be able to convince those at the bottom of the socio-economic pile that further suffering is the route to personal and collective salvation. Put another way, the material economy – actually existing inequalities – has been cast in the mould of a spiritual one. In this spiritual economy, there is the blood of martyrs, water reserved for our own people and the everlasting blessings of the mother figure. Within a spiritual community, actually existing distinctions are effaced through veiling the human-made inequalities of the world with ideas of a unified spirit, an undifferentiated people.

Is it not an odd thing that at a time when – as the latest Credit Suisse Group AG report points out – 1% of Indians own around 58% of the country’s wealth, so many appear to share a feeling of togetherness? The key question is this: does it make any sense to focus on the economic when matters of economy are expressed in the language of the social and cultural? This is where critics of demonetisation, particularly the Left, have failed to grasp the meanings that move people. Cultural arguments can only be countered through an equally vehement recourse to culture. It isn’t money that makes the world go around. It’s being convinced that the way the world goes around is the right way.

We welcome your comments at letters@scroll.in.
Sponsored Content BY 

Relying on the power of habits to solve India’s mammoth sanitation problem

Adopting three simple habits can help maximise the benefits of existing sanitation infrastructure.

India’s sanitation problem is well documented – the country was recently declared as having the highest number of people living without basic sanitation facilities. Sanitation encompasses all conditions relating to public health - especially sewage disposal and access to clean drinking water. Due to associated losses in productivity caused by sickness, increased healthcare costs and increased mortality, India recorded a loss of 5.2% of its GDP to poor sanitation in 2015. As tremendous as the economic losses are, the on-ground, human consequences of poor sanitation are grim - about one in 10 deaths, according to the World Bank.

Poor sanitation contributes to about 10% of the world’s disease burden and is linked to even those diseases that may not present any correlation at first. For example, while lack of nutrition is a direct cause of anaemia, poor sanitation can contribute to the problem by causing intestinal diseases which prevent people from absorbing nutrition from their food. In fact, a study found a correlation between improved sanitation and reduced prevalence of anaemia in 14 Indian states. Diarrhoeal diseases, the most well-known consequence of poor sanitation, are the third largest cause of child mortality in India. They are also linked to undernutrition and stunting in children - 38% of Indian children exhibit stunted growth. Improved sanitation can also help reduce prevalence of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). Though not a cause of high mortality rate, NTDs impair physical and cognitive development, contribute to mother and child illness and death and affect overall productivity. NTDs caused by parasitic worms - such as hookworms, whipworms etc. - infect millions every year and spread through open defecation. Improving toilet access and access to clean drinking water can significantly boost disease control programmes for diarrhoea, NTDs and other correlated conditions.

Unfortunately, with about 732 million people who have no access to toilets, India currently accounts for more than half of the world population that defecates in the open. India also accounts for the largest rural population living without access to clean water. Only 16% of India’s rural population is currently served by piped water.

However, there is cause for optimism. In the three years of Swachh Bharat Abhiyan, the country’s sanitation coverage has risen from 39% to 65% and eight states and Union Territories have been declared open defecation free. But lasting change cannot be ensured by the proliferation of sanitation infrastructure alone. Ensuring the usage of toilets is as important as building them, more so due to the cultural preference for open defecation in rural India.

According to the World Bank, hygiene promotion is essential to realise the potential of infrastructure investments in sanitation. Behavioural intervention is most successful when it targets few behaviours with the most potential for impact. An area of public health where behavioural training has made an impact is WASH - water, sanitation and hygiene - a key issue of UN Sustainable Development Goal 6. Compliance to WASH practices has the potential to reduce illness and death, poverty and improve overall socio-economic development. The UN has even marked observance days for each - World Water Day for water (22 March), World Toilet Day for sanitation (19 November) and Global Handwashing Day for hygiene (15 October).

At its simplest, the benefits of WASH can be availed through three simple habits that safeguard against disease - washing hands before eating, drinking clean water and using a clean toilet. Handwashing and use of toilets are some of the most important behavioural interventions that keep diarrhoeal diseases from spreading, while clean drinking water is essential to prevent water-borne diseases and adverse health effects of toxic contaminants. In India, Hindustan Unilever Limited launched the Swachh Aadat Swachh Bharat initiative, a WASH behaviour change programme, to complement the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan. Through its on-ground behaviour change model, SASB seeks to promote the three basic WASH habits to create long-lasting personal hygiene compliance among the populations it serves.

This touching film made as a part of SASB’s awareness campaign shows how lack of knowledge of basic hygiene practices means children miss out on developmental milestones due to preventable diseases.

Play

SASB created the Swachhata curriculum, a textbook to encourage adoption of personal hygiene among school going children. It makes use of conceptual learning to teach primary school students about cleanliness, germs and clean habits in an engaging manner. Swachh Basti is an extensive urban outreach programme for sensitising urban slum residents about WASH habits through demos, skits and etc. in partnership with key local stakeholders such as doctors, anganwadi workers and support groups. In Ghatkopar, Mumbai, HUL built the first-of-its-kind Suvidha Centre - an urban water, hygiene and sanitation community centre. It provides toilets, handwashing and shower facilities, safe drinking water and state-of-the-art laundry operations at an affordable cost to about 1,500 residents of the area.

HUL’s factory workers also act as Swachhata Doots, or messengers of change who teach the three habits of WASH in their own villages. This mobile-led rural behaviour change communication model also provides a volunteering opportunity to those who are busy but wish to make a difference. A toolkit especially designed for this purpose helps volunteers approach, explain and teach people in their immediate vicinity - their drivers, cooks, domestic helps etc. - about the three simple habits for better hygiene. This helps cast the net of awareness wider as regular interaction is conducive to habit formation. To learn more about their volunteering programme, click here. To learn more about the Swachh Aadat Swachh Bharat initiative, click here.

This article was produced by the Scroll marketing team on behalf of Hindustan Unilever and not by the Scroll editorial team.