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Labour Flows

Where everyone in the world is migrating – in one gorgeous chart

The largest regional migration is from Southeast Asia to the Middle East. The biggest flow between individual countries is the steady stream from Mexico to the US.



It’s no secret that the world’s population is on the move, but it’s rare to get a glimpse of where that flow is happening. In a study released in yesterday's Science, a team of geographers used data snapshots to create a broad analysis of global migrations over 20 years.

The study was conducted by three geographic researchers from the Wittgenstein Centre for Demography and Global Human Capital in Vienna. The researchers presented their data in five-year increments, from 1990 to 2010. Their research is unique, because it turned static census counts from over 150 countries into a dynamic flow of human traffic.

Migration data is counted in two ways: Stock and flow. “The stocks are the number of migrants living in a country,” said Nikola Sander, one of the study’s authors. Stock is relatively easy to get – you just count who is in the country at a given point of time. Flow is trickier. It’s the rate of human traffic over time.

Keeping accurate account of where people are moving has stymied the UN, and researchers and policy-makers in general, for a while. The European Union keeps good track of migrant flows, but elsewhere the data are sparse. Static measurements are plentiful, but it is hard to use them to get a picture of how people are moving on a broad scale, because each country has its own methodology for collecting census data.

Last year, however, the UN brought stock data from nearly 200 countries into harmony by erasing the methodological seams between them. To turn this stock data into five-year flow estimates, the researchers used statistical interpolations from stock data from the UN, taken mostly from 10-year country censuses, but supplemented with population registers and other national surveys.

It’s not the poorest who migrate the most

While the results of the migration study aren’t particularly groundbreaking, there are two interesting insights:

1) Adjusted for population growth, the global migration rate has stayed roughly the same since around since 1995 (it was higher from 1990-1995).

2) It’s not the poorest countries sending people to the richest countries, it’s countries in transition – still poor, but with some education and mobility – that are the highest migratory contributors.

“One of the conclusions they make in the paper, is the idea as countries develop, they continue to send more migrants, and at some point they become migrant-receiving regions themselves,” said Fernando Riosmena, a geographer from the University of Colorado, who did not contribute to this research, but is collaborating with one of the authors on a future paper.

A few other noteworthy results:

1) The largest regional migration is from Southeast Asia to the Middle East. This is largely driven by the huge, oil-driven construction booms happening on the Arabian Peninsula.

2) The biggest flow between individual countries is the steady stream from Mexico to the US. (In fact, the US is the largest single migrant destination).

3) There’s a huge circulation of migrants among sub-Saharan African countries. This migration dwarfs the number leaving Africa, but the media pay more attention the latter because of the austerity-driven immigration debates in Europe.

Explore the world of migration

The data aren’t perfect. Riosmena points out that in countries and regions that especially dislike migrants, like the US and Europe, numbers are often underreported. Still, he says, the data are a very good indication of the general trends.

Also, amateur data sleuths be warned: Because these flow estimates are taken from 10-year static counts, they cannot be compared to the annual migrational flows that the UN publishes (which, as mentioned above, cannot be used to compare between countries).

Sander says she hopes her data will change the way other researchers approach migration. “Inside the discipline, we hope that it’s going to be the basis for subsequent analysis of the impact of migration on population, on economies, on aging.” Sander and her colleagues have lined their data up with global remittance flows, and are analyzing what kind of patterns they can find therein.

This post originally appeared on Quartz.com.

 
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Athleisure is the new black

This new fashion trend sweeping across the country demands your attention.

A portmanteau of 'Athletic' and 'Leisure', the rising trend of 2015 – athleisure is a huge nod to two great trends that have taken hold of the fashion world: fitness and casualness. While Jane Fonda might have had the jump on this trend 30 years ago, it has only become a phenomenon after 2010 as the wellness industry started booming.

Not like we were not working out before. The Juicy Couture sweatpants of the 90s, the ubiquity of the sweatshirt from classrooms to boardrooms (we're looking at you Zuckerberg) were a precursor to this movement.

High fashion has lapped up athleisure because it brings with it the promise of functionality. High performance fabrics do most of the heavy lifting, from odour control to sweat proofing, using breathable fabrics, lending support and shaping, and helping in getting the maximum out of your ensemble. The focus on style ensures that the clothes travel easily from gym to work to bar (probably juice bar). The tectonic shift has been in not keeping high performance workout gear restricted to the gym alone.

This is one of the few fashion trends, other than jeans, to trickle up rather than trickle down; and the designers have responded accordingly. Taking it a notch higher into the Sports Luxe category, there is a Karl Lagerfeld sweatshirt and couture sneakers from Chanel; there is Alexander Wang teaming up with Adidas and giving us sweats that are so sleek they can and have been worn on the red carpet. Victoria’s Secret has a new active wear line and even Beyonce has debuted Ivy Park, her active wear line with TopShop, signalling peak athleisure. This is a trend that shows off the body rather than hides it, and with Fit being the new Rich, style and fitness coalesce to make it the break out trend of the season.

While it is an inducement for fitness, it is not for the fit people exclusively. It allows you to live out the fitness fantasy without actually doing a lot of the work. Fatigue from the skinny jeans has made the market welcome comfortable yoga pants; a trend that refuses to go away! Started as a largely female focused trend, companies like Lululemon and SweatBetty bet big on the athleisure lifestyle and are now multimillion dollar companies that make the best yoga leggings in the business. Athleisure became more male friendly with compression pants and puffer jackets that kept you cool in the summer and warm in the winter all the while being a snug fit. Even sneakers have never seen such an all-time high in the market as they do now, with Yeezy’s, Air Jordan’s, to the Adidas superstar fetching top dollar and we have athleisure to thank for that.

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It is one of the few moments when fashion is not being merely whimsical; it is actually listening to what people want to wear and what makes sense according to their evolving lifestyles. Paying heed to this gap in the market of a population that runs on Fitbit and counts its calories has paid out and proven to be a win-win for both the brands and the buyers.

Ajio brings athleisure to Indian shores with its Active Capsule collections. The handpicked Too Fit to Quit capsule provides a range of sweatshirts, t-shirts, running shorts and track pants to work out or lounge around in. The casual style is carried over to accessories as well as a great range of bags and sneakers. Along with a versatile portfolio of Puma, Vans, Wrangler, Lee, Skechers etc it also has an in-house line in fitness apparel that mixes Indian tastes with urban contemporary. Head over to Ajio.com, the aisle of style to shop this trend.

This article was produced on behalf of Ajio.com by the Scroll.in marketing team and not by the Scroll.in editorial staff.

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