Sexual exploitation

Minor girls and women chief targets in India's surging human-trafficking trade

Data released by the NCRB shows a frightening surge in the trafficking of minor girls in the last year.

Trafficking of minor girls – the second-most prevalent trafficking crime – surged 14 times over the last decade and increased 65% in 2014, according to new data released by the National Crime Records Bureau.

Girls and women are the main targets of immoral trafficking in India, making up 76% of human trafficking cases nationwide over a decade, reveal NCRB data.

Other cases registered under human trafficking over the last decade include selling girls for prostitution, importing girls from a foreign country and buying girls for prostitution.

Sexual exploitation of women and children for commercial purposes takes place in various forms including brothel-based prostitution, sex-tourism, and pornography.

As many as 8,099 people were reported to be trafficked across India in 2014.


SourceNational Crime Records Bureau; Note: The IPC sections for the crimes mentioned above are as follows–Procuration of minor girls (Sec. 366-A IPC), Importation of girls from foreign country (Sec. 366-B IPC), Selling of girls for prostitution (Sec. 372 IPC), Buying of girls for prostitution (Sec. 373 IPC), Human Trafficking (Sec 370 & 370A IPC)


Most of the victims (3,351) were registered under immoral trafficking.

Immoral trafficking was followed by human trafficking (2,605), under section 370 & 370A of Indian Penal Code, which includes men and boys trafficked to work sites such as brick kilns and construction sites.

Traffickers import women and girls from, Indian states aside, a variety of countries, such as Ukraine, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan, Chechnya and Kyrgyzstan, Nepal, Thailand, Malaysia and Thailand, according to this United Nations report.

To counter the surge targeting girls and women, a 2013 amendment to the law provides rigorous punishment from a minimum of three years in prison to life imprisonment to address the trafficking of children, including physical exploitation or any form of sexual exploitation, slavery, servitude or the forced removal of organs.

Human trafficking expands to almost every part of India

Human trafficking in general has expanded to almost every state in the country. Tamil Nadu leads with 9,701 cases over the past ten years, followed by Andhra Pradesh (5,861), Karnataka (5,443), West Bengal (4,190) and Maharashtra (3,628).

These five states are high source as well as destination areas, trafficking women and young girls to red-light areas; they comprise 70% of all reported cases of human trafficking over the past ten years.


Source
National Crime Records Bureau; Note: Figures from 2005 to 2008 do not include cases reported under Child Marriage Restraint Act, 1929; Andhra Pradesh figures for 2014 are inclusive of Telangana.


However, cases in Tamil Nadu appear to be declining, while West Bengal is reporting a rise.

Tamil Nadu has reported trafficking of young women and children to the red-light areas of Mumbai and Delhi, according to this UN report on Human Trafficking. Raids by police in Tamil Nadu have also revealed the expanding operations of transnational traffickers.


Source
UN Office on Drugs & Crime


Human-trafficking cases up 92% over last six years

Human trafficking is not an Indian phenomenon. It is the third-largest source of profit for organised crime, after arms and drugs trafficking involving billions of dollars annually world-wide.

Human trafficking is the acquisition of people by improper means such as force, fraud or deception, with the aim of exploiting them, according to the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime.


In 2014, India reported a surge of nearly 39% in the number of cases registered across the country for human trafficking. Human trafficking cases in India rose 92% over six years between 2009 and 2014. However, these cases declined 55% between 2005 and 2009.



SourceNational Crime Records Bureau; Note: figures from 2005 to 2008 do not include cases reported under Child Marriage Restraint Act, 1929; The IPC sections for the crimes mentioned above are as follows–Procuration of minor girls (Sec. 366-A IPC), Importation of girls from foreign country (Sec. 366-B IPC), Selling of girls for prostitution (Sec. 372 IPC), Buying of girls for prostitution (Sec. 373 IPC), Human Trafficking (Sec 370 & 370A IPC)


Immoral Trafficking (Prevention) Act 1956, penalises trafficking of women and children for commercial sexual exploitation.

Human traffickers are punished, but many get away

Over the past five years, 23% of human-trafficking cases filed ended in conviction. As many as 45,375 people were arrested and 10,134 persons were convicted. Punishments range from fines to imprisonment.


SourceNational Crime Records Bureau


Andhra Pradesh (7,450) reported the most arrests over the past five years. Maharashtra was second, followed by Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and West Bengal.

In all, 2,756 people were convicted in Tamil Nadu, the highest among all states over the past five years, followed by, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Kerala and Uttar Pradesh.

One of the reasons for an increase in the number of registered cases in 2014 over 2013 could be better reporting. The government of India is trying a variety of measures to curb human trafficking.

Government steps up efforts to keep up with traffickers

An anti-trafficking nodal cell has been set up under the Ministry of Home Affairs, in addition to Anti-Human Trafficking Units, which will be located in 335 vulnerable police districts; 225 such units are up and running.

The central government released Rs 2.65 crore in 2014 to Arunachal Pradesh, Gujarat, Haryana, Kerala, Nagaland, Odisha, Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand for anti-trafficking units.

The Home Ministry has also launched a web portal on anti-human trafficking, and the Ministry of Women and Child Development is implementing Ujjawala, a programme that focuses on rescue, rehabilitation and repatriation of victims.

This article was originally published on IndiaSpend.com, a data-driven and public-interest journalism non-profit.

We welcome your comments at letters@scroll.in.
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Ten awesome TV shows to get over your post-GoT blues

With those withdrawal symptoms kicking in, all you need is a good rebound show.

Hangovers tend to have a debilitating effect on various human faculties, but a timely cure can ease that hollow feeling generally felt in the pit of the stomach. The Game of Thrones Season 7 finale has left us with that similar empty feeling, worsened by an official statement on the 16-month-long wait to witness The Great War. That indeed is a long time away from our friends Dany, Jon, Queen C and even sweet, sweet Podrick. While nothing can quite replace the frosty thrill of Game of Thrones, here’s a list of awesome shows, several having won multiple Emmy awards, that are sure to vanquish those nasty withdrawal symptoms:

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2. Westworld

What do you get when the makers of the Dark Knight Trilogy and the studio behind Game of Thrones collaborate to remake a Michael Crichton classic? Westworld brings together two worlds: an imagined future and the old American West, with cowboys, gun slingers - the works. This sci-fi series manages to hold on to a dark secret by wrapping it with the excitement and adventure of the wild west. Once the plot is unwrapped, the secret reveals itself as a genius interpretation of human nature and what it means to be human. Regardless of what headspace you’re in, this Emmy-nominated series will absorb you in its expansive and futuristic world. If you don’t find all of the above compelling enough, you may want to watch Westworld simply because George RR Martin himself recommends it! Westworld will return for season 2 in the spring of 2018.

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3. Big Little Lies

It’s a distinct possibility that your first impressions of this show, whether you form those from the trailer or opening sequence, will make you think this is just another sun-kissed and glossy Californian drama. Until, the dark theme of BLL descends like an eerie mist, that is. With the serious acting chops of Reese Witherspoon and Nicole Kidman as leads, this murder mystery is one of a kind. Adapted from author Liane Moriarty’s book, this female-led show has received accolades for shattering the one-dimensional portrayal of women on TV. Despite the stellar star cast, this Emmy-nominated show wasn’t easy to make. You should watch Big Little Lies if only for Reese Witherspoon’s long struggle to get it off the ground.

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4. The Night of

The Night Of is one of the few crime dramas featuring South Asians without resorting to tired stereotypes. It’s the kind of show that will keep you in its grip with its mysterious plotline, have you rooting for its characters and leave you devastated and furious. While the narrative revolves around a murder and the mystery that surrounds it, its undertones raises questions on racial, class and courtroom politics. If you’re a fan of True Detective or Law & Order and are looking for something serious and thoughtful, look no further than this series of critical acclaim.

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As the name suggests, AHS is a horror anthology for those who can stomach some gore and more. In its 6 seasons, the show has covered a wide range of horror settings like a murder house, freak shows, asylums etc. and the latest season is set to explore cults. Fans of Sarah Paulson and Jessica Lange are in for a treat, as are Lady Gaga’s fans. If you pride yourself on not being weak of the heart, give American Horror Story a try.

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At its heart, Empire is a simple show about a family business. It just so happens that this family business is a bit different from the sort you are probably accustomed to, because this business entails running a record label, managing artistes and when push comes to shove, dealing with rivals in a permanent sort of manner. Empire treads some unique ground as a fairly violent show that also happens to be a musical. Lead actors Taraji P Henson and Terrence Howard certainly make it worth your while to visit this universe, but it’s the constantly evolving interpersonal relations and bevy of cameo appearances that’ll make you stay. If you’re a fan of hip hop, you’ll enjoy a peek into the world that makes it happen. Hey, even if you aren’t one, you might just grow fond of rap and hip hop.

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7. Modern Family

When everything else fails, it’s comforting to know that the family will always be there to lift your spirits and keep you chuckling. And by the family we mean the Dunphys, Pritchetts and Tuckers, obviously. Modern Family portrays the hues of familial bonds with an honesty that most family shows would gloss over. Eight seasons in, the show’s characters like Gloria and Phil Dunphy have taken on legendary proportions in their fans’ minds as they navigate their relationships with relentless bumbling humour. If you’re tired of irritating one-liners or shows that try too hard, a Modern Family marathon is in order. This multiple-Emmy-winning sitcom is worth revisiting, especially since the brand new season 9 premiers on 28th September 2017.

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8. The Deuce

Headlined by James Franco and Maggi Gyllenhaal, The Deuce is not just about the dazzle of the 1970s, with the hippest New York crowd dancing to disco in gloriously flamboyant outfits. What it IS about is the city’s nooks and crannies that contain its underbelly thriving on a drug epidemic. The series portrays the harsh reality of New York city in the 70s following the legalisation of the porn industry intertwined with the turbulence caused by mob violence. You’ll be hooked if you are a fan of The Wire and American Hustle, but keep in mind it’s grimmer and grittier. The Deuce offers a turbulent ride which will leave you wanting more.

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9. Dexter

In case you’re feeling vengeful, you can always get the spite out of your system vicariously by watching Dexter, our favourite serial killer. This vigilante killer doesn’t hide behind a mask or a costume, but sneaks around like a criminal, targeting the bad guys that have slipped through the justice system. From its premier in 2006 to its series finale in 2013, the Emmy-nominated Michael C Hall, as Dexter, has kept fans in awe of the scientific precision in which he conducts his kills. For those who haven’t seen the show, the opening credits give an accurate glimpse of how captivating the next 45 minutes will be. If it’s been a while since you watched in awe as the opening credits rolled, maybe you should revisit the world’s most loved psychopath for nostalgia’s sake.

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10. Rome

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This article was produced by the Scroll marketing team on behalf of Hotstar and not by the Scroll editorial team.