Read To Win

Why 'Half of a Yellow Sun' won the 'Best of the Best' of the Baileys Women’s Prize for Fiction

Continuing our series on readers’ choices of books that have moved them.

There is a toy, called a thaumatrope, composed of a thick paper disc attached to string. It looks roughly like this: —O—.  Its name means “Wonder Turner”. On one side there may be a picture of a bird, and on the other a cage; or on one side a tree and on the other leaves. Thanks to the persistence of image, when a person twists the string to spin the disc, the two pictures on either side join in the eye. The bird, free at rest but frozen, in motion both occupies and escapes the cage, which lies empty and less poignant in stasis. The tree assumes its leaves in the passage of the disc’s rapid seasons.

This figure also functions conceptually: place “space” on one side and “time” on the other, or “male” and “female”, or “even” and “odd”, or “finite” and “infinite”. The thaumatrope is a truly Pythagorean device. Half of a Yellow Sun is such an instrument.

The practice of love offers no place of safety. We risk loss, hurt, pain. We risk being acted upon by forces outside our control.
- bell hooks, All About Love: New Visions

Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie knows that time alone is inadequate to a description of history. She is thus wise to choose to write fiction, a form almost wholly absorbed with human relations, to which she seems highly attuned: her depictions have earned due adulation. Just last month, Ngozi Adichie’s 2006 novel, Half of a Yellow Sun, won the “Best of the Best” of a decade of Baileys Women’s Prize for Fiction winners.

The book, which received the original Baileys award in 2007, along with the prestigious Orange prize, tracks a family through West Africa’s seismic sixties, in which Nigeria became an independent republic, dissolved into civil war then spawned and aborted another country.

“I grew up in the shadow of Biafra,” says Ngozi Adichie. “I grew up hearing ‘before the war’ and ‘after the war’ stories; it was as if the war had somehow divided the memories of my family. I have always wanted to write about Biafra – not only to honor my grandfathers, but also to honor the collective memory of an entire nation.”

States stand, in this work, for the situation. Events reverberate at scales: Subject and Object are corollary. Counterintuitively, timelines actually fracture thematic continuity.

Can we not find it in ourselves to belong to an ancient civilisation instead of to just a recent nation? To love a land instead of just patrolling a territory?
- Arundhati Roy, Democracy

The narrative of Half of a Yellow Sun, Ngozi Adichie’s second book, charts six individuals through a sort of vortex of personal and political crises. Sections leap over years, so the reader sometimes only feels echoes of events that have occurred in the interim, which get filled in as the story progresses.

The civil war, which began in 1966 with an Igbo military coup against Hausa (“Northern”) and Yoruba (“Western”) leaders, provides the plot’s engine. Newly liberated, Nigeria’s switch from colony to democracy left many suddenly-antiquated power edifices in place, and the first coup was a response to unequal tribal representation in the buxom, heavily incestuous government.

Unrest ensued, plus another coup against Igbo (“Southeastern”) soldiers that spilled over into citizens. Hence the secession of Biafra: tension between North and South is a universal issue. These tribes are also distinguished as language groups. The climate is complicated in that the violence in a way enacts people’s explicit desires.

Since facts are to some extent given, twists arrive via the characters’ lives. Ugwu, Olanna and Richard are the foci: they get the ostensible “I”. Richard, from Britain, is romantically involved with Olanna’s non-identical twin, Kainene, heiress to a manufacturing dynasty heavily embedded in the old regime. Olanna teaches sociology; her “revolutionary lover”, Odenigbo, teaches mathematics and hosts a nightly salon of local intellectuals, which allows Ngozi Adichie opportunities to interrogate rhetoric and nationalist “Spirit” with a spectrum of perspectives.

Ugwu is Odenigbo’s houseboy, raised in a village. The last of the six is a girl child, most often in Ugwu’s care. Together, the ensemble represents contiguous strata of society, and Ngozi Adichie deploys them to great effect. Their affairs, thoughts, experiences and states of mind not only inspire belief; they invite empathy, which is an ideal achievement.

There has never been a document of culture, which is not simultaneously one of barbarism.
- Walter Benjamin, On the Concept of History

“I wanted to write about love and war,” says Ngozi Adichie. These are the poles she inscribes on her thaumatrope and invests with movement. In its spin we see their overlaps, as well as how they exceed and transcend each other. Care can breed possession, jealousy, paranoia, greed. Trials forge and purify affection, strengthen bonds and purge deceit. The toy in Ngozi Adichie’s deft hands is serious, and play elucidates reality.

Half of a Yellow Sun contains two central images, which repeat at intervals. First, there is the Igbo-Ukwu roped vessel, testament to the region’s mastery of copper metallurgy as early as the Ninth Century CE. It is an ornate, wrought record of human achievement: the capacity to manipulate matter. Richard cites the artifact as his whole impetus to move to Nigeria. The roped pot, as an object, speaks to a vibrant cultural heritage before both written language and colonial oppression.

Second, there is the calabash Olanna sees on a train home from an area affected by the war. Calabashes are also known as bottle gourds, which, since prehistory, have been hollowed and dried to make vessels, utensils and musical instruments. The calabash Olanna sees bears a young girl’s head; the girl’s mother carries the gourd: Love and War.

Everything is bilateral in the domain of thought. Ideas are two-sided. Only God is triangular!
- Honoré de Balzac, Lost Illusions

With the Wonder Turner, the vessels merge and gain identity in the persistence of image. The Igbo-Ukwu roped pot grows smooth, organic, a natural product of evolution, while the calabash assumes ornament, gets crafted, acts as evidence of advanced civilization. Each has a head in it: together they are one. “There is no was.” Our maps today bear no trace of Biafra, but it’s there behind them. The pages of Half of a Yellow Sun turn with enough grace and speed to true history.

Zachary Bushnell works across mediums such as poetry, prose, theatre and performance. He currently teaches writing and critical theory at a university in Delhi.

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“My body instantly craves chai and samosa”

German expats talk about adapting to India, and the surprising similarities between the two cultures.

The cultural similarities between Germany and India are well known, especially with regards to the language. Linguists believe that Sanskrit and German share the same Indo-Germanic heritage of languages. A quick comparison indeed holds up theory - ratha in Sanskrit (chariot) is rad in German, aksha (axle) in Sanskrit is achse in German and so on. Germans have long held a fascination for Indology and Sanskrit. While Max Müller is still admired for his translation of ancient Indian scriptures, other German intellectuals such as Goethe, Herder and Schlegel were deeply influenced by Kalidasa. His poetry is said to have informed Goethe’s plays, and inspired Schlegel to eventually introduce formal Indology in Germany. Beyond the arts and academia, Indian influences even found their way into German fast food! Indians would recognise the famous German curry powder as a modification of the Indian masala mix. It’s most popular application is the currywurst - fried sausage covered in curried ketchup.

It is no wonder then that German travellers in India find a quite a lot in common between the two cultures, even today. Some, especially those who’ve settled here, even confess to Indian culture growing on them with time. Isabelle, like most travellers, first came to India to explore the country’s rich heritage. She returned the following year as an exchange student, and a couple of years later found herself working for an Indian consultancy firm. When asked what prompted her to stay on, Isabelle said, “I love the market dynamics here, working here is so much fun. Anywhere else would seem boring compared to India.” Having cofounded a company, she eventually realised her entrepreneurial dream here and now resides in Goa with her husband.

Isabelle says there are several aspects of life in India that remind her of home. “How we interact with our everyday life is similar in both Germany and India. Separate house slippers to wear at home, the celebration of food and festivals, the importance of friendship…” She feels Germany and India share the same spirit especially in terms of festivities. “We love food and we love celebrating food. There is an entire countdown to Christmas. Every day there is some dinner or get-together,” much like how Indians excitedly countdown to Navratri or Diwali. Franziska, who was born in India to German parents, adds that both the countries exhibit the same kind of passion for their favourite sport. “In India, they support cricket like anything while in Germany it would be football.”

Having lived in India for almost a decade, Isabelle has also noticed some broad similarities in the way children are brought up in the two countries. “We have a saying in South Germany ‘Schaffe Schaffe Hausle baue’ that loosely translates to ‘work, work, work and build a house’. I found that parents here have a similar outlook…to teach their children to work hard. They feel that they’ve fulfilled their duty only once the children have moved out or gotten married. Also, my mother never let me leave the house without a big breakfast. It’s the same here.” The importance given to the care of the family is one similarity that came up again and again in conversations with all German expats.

While most people wouldn’t draw parallels between German and Indian discipline (or lack thereof), Germans married to Indians have found a way to bridge the gap. Take for example, Ilka, who thinks that the famed differences of discipline between the two cultures actually works to her marital advantage. She sees the difference as Germans being highly planning-oriented; while Indians are more flexible in their approach. Ilka and her husband balance each other out in several ways. She says, like most Germans, she too tends to get stressed when her plans don’t work out, but her husband calms her down.

Consequently, Ilka feels India is “so full of life. The social life here is more happening; people smile at you, bond over food and are much more relaxed.” Isabelle, too, can attest to Indians’ friendliness. When asked about an Indian characteristic that makes her feel most at home, she quickly answers “humour.” “Whether it’s a taxi driver or someone I’m meeting professionally, I’ve learnt that it’s easy to lighten the mood here by just cracking a few jokes. Indians love to laugh,” she adds.

Indeed, these Germans-who-never-left as just diehard Indophiles are more Indian than you’d guess at first, having even developed some classic Indian skills with time. Ilka assures us that her husband can’t bargain as well as she does, and that she can even drape a saree on her own.

Isabelle, meanwhile, feels some amount of Indianness has seeped into her because “whenever its raining, my body instantly craves chai and samosa”.

Like the long-settled German expats in India, the German airline, Lufthansa, too has incorporated some quintessential aspects of Indian culture in its service. Recognising the centuries-old cultural affinity between the two countries, Lufthansa now provides a rich experience of Indian hospitality to all flyers on board its flights to and from India. You can expect a greeting of Namaste by an all-Indian crew, Indian food, and popular Indian in-flight entertainment options. And as the video shows, India’s culture and hospitality have been internalized by Lufthansa to the extent that they are More Indian Than You Think. To experience Lufthansa’s hospitality on your next trip abroad, click here.


This article was produced by the Scroll marketing team on behalf of Lufthansa as part of their More Indian Than You Think initiative and not by the Scroll editorial team.