Bad loans: Recapitalisation bonds are not enough to resolve the mess in Indian public sector banks

The battle against the twin balance sheet problem of the Indian economy will not be conclusively won unless further reforms are implemented.

A few days after Diwali last year, India’s were tearing their hair out as they struggled to manage long queues of people and replace old currency notes of Rs 500 and Rs 1,000 in the wake of demonetisation.

This Diwali was different, particularly for the public-sector banks.

Less than a week after the festival, they heaved a sigh of relief, though for a different reason. On Tuesday, October 24, the government announced a grand plan: public sector banks will be recapitalised to the tune of Rs 2.11 lakh crore over the next two years.

This amount may be a little short of the estimated requirement of Rs 3 lakh crore of total recapitalisation, but it is a step that shows the government’s seriousness in tackling the financial mess in the state-owned banking sector.

Full details of the recapitalisation are not yet out. An estimated Rs 18,000 crore will come straight from the central exchequer by way of equity. Another Rs 58,000 crore is expected to come from banks raising capital from the market. The remaining Rs 1.35 lakh crore would be in the form of recapitalisation bonds, the details of which are yet to be made public.

But even as Finance Minister Arun Jaitley, Reserve Bank of India Governor Urjit Patel and Chief Economic Advisor Arvind Subramanian spoke separately on the implications of the recapitalisation plan, three messages are coming out loud and clear.

One, the Modi government is preparing for a slippage in its fiscal consolidation plan in order to provide the much-needed capital for public-sector banks.

Contrary to suggestions made by some influential voices in the government, the fact is that the issuance of the recapitalisation bonds under the new package will result in an effective widening of the fiscal deficit. And if higher revenues do not come to its rescue, this will be the first year of the Modi government when it would fail to meet its fiscal deficit target and indeed could change the trend of a declining fiscal deficit witnessed in each of the last five years.

True, as the RBI governor pointed out, the issuance of bonds would be “liquidity-neutral” for the government, but they would certainly add to the government’s borrowing. Both the additional borrowing and the annual interest outgo of Rs 8,000-9,000 crore on these bonds should widen the government’s fiscal deficit. Indeed, Patel himself does not rule out a widening of the fiscal deficit when he says that by “deploying recapitalisation bonds, it will front-load capital injections while staggering the attendant fiscal implications over a period of time.”

The chief economic advisor has noted that international standards and even the accounting norms followed by the International Monetary Fund do not require these recapitalisation bonds for the financial sector to be captured while calculating the government’s total fiscal deficit. These numbers are mentioned “below the line”. But effectively it will imply a widening of the fiscal deficit. Even Subramanian has admitted in a public lecture that “under India’s convention, these bonds would add to deficit”.
It is possible that the government may choose to present the impact of the recapitalisation bonds separately “below the line”, as was done many years ago for the oil bonds to help oil companies absorb the impact of higher crude oil prices, without passing it on in the form of increased prices for consumers.

If that path is chosen, it is likely that analysts and rating agencies may start referring to two sets of fiscal deficit numbers – the actual fiscal deficit including the impact of the recapitalisation bonds and the official fiscal deficit that does not reflect such an impact. Analysing the Indian government’s fiscal deficit numbers will get a little more complex.

The final confirmation that the Modi government may be accepting a widening of its fiscal deficit in the wake of these bonds came from none other than the finance minister, though in an indirect way. In a tweet, Jaitley said: “Government is committed to maintaining a balance between fiscal prudence and capital spending to push growth.”

A balance between fiscal prudence and capital spending suggests that a middle path is likely to be followed wherein some relaxation in the fiscal deficit reduction target is possible to make way for higher capital expenditure to attain higher growth.

Two, the stock market has given its thumbs up for the government move.

A 435-point jump in Sensex on Wednesday has taken the Bombay Stock Exchange benchmark index to a record high, reflecting a Rs 1.2 lakh crore increase in the market capitalisation of 22 listed public-sector banks. The Nifty Bank index jumped by 30% in a day – a record in itself. Clearly, the stock market believes that the combined impact of the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code and recapitalisation of state-owned banks would help relieve the stress in the financial sector.

The positive market response is significant and augurs well for the government’s recapitalisation package. Remember that almost Rs 58,000 crore out of Rs 2.11 lakh crore will have to be mobilised through flotation of equity in the capital market. If the market sees an improvement in the listed state-owned banks’ ability to grow their business profitably after the infusion of recapitalisation bonds, it will help retail subscription of fresh shares of these banks. The RBI governor was hopeful that the package would help “involve the participation of private shareholders of public sector banks by requiring that parts of the capital needs be met by market funding.”

Three, the recapitalisation package will not in itself be capable of preventing further deterioration in the quality of assets of these public-sector banks.

Hence, expectations of what further reforms of these banks will follow have risen. The finance minister did talk about a package of reform measures that the government would announce to supplement its recapitalisation efforts. Details of such reforms will be eagerly awaited.

The RBI governor has already hinted at what those reform measures could be. Patel seemed hopeful that banks worthy of capital infusion would be prioritised. He said: “It will allow for a calibrated approach whereby banks that have better addressed their balance-sheet issues and are in a position to use fresh capital injection for immediate credit creation can be given priority while others shape up to be in a similar position. This provides for a good way of bringing some market discipline into a public recapitalisation program compared to the past recapitalisation programs.”

Indeed, the battle against the twin balance sheet problems of the Indian economy (indebted India Inc and rising bad loans of banks) will not be conclusively won unless further reforms are implemented. Will the government go in for ownership change in the state-owned banks? Will the managements be revamped in a way that such bad loans problems do not recur?

In that sense, this package is incomplete even though it has elements of both the Sudarshan Chakra that Reserve Bank of India Deputy Governor Viral Acharya had asked for and of the Brahmastra, a term that Chief Economic Advisor Arvind Subramanian has used to describe the package.

Disclaimer: Views expressed are personal. They do not reflect the view/s of Business Standard

This article first appeared on Business Standard.

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“My body instantly craves chai and samosa”

German expats talk about adapting to India, and the surprising similarities between the two cultures.

The cultural similarities between Germany and India are well known, especially with regards to the language. Linguists believe that Sanskrit and German share the same Indo-Germanic heritage of languages. A quick comparison indeed holds up theory - ratha in Sanskrit (chariot) is rad in German, aksha (axle) in Sanskrit is achse in German and so on. Germans have long held a fascination for Indology and Sanskrit. While Max Müller is still admired for his translation of ancient Indian scriptures, other German intellectuals such as Goethe, Herder and Schlegel were deeply influenced by Kalidasa. His poetry is said to have informed Goethe’s plays, and inspired Schlegel to eventually introduce formal Indology in Germany. Beyond the arts and academia, Indian influences even found their way into German fast food! Indians would recognise the famous German curry powder as a modification of the Indian masala mix. It’s most popular application is the currywurst - fried sausage covered in curried ketchup.

It is no wonder then that German travellers in India find a quite a lot in common between the two cultures, even today. Some, especially those who’ve settled here, even confess to Indian culture growing on them with time. Isabelle, like most travellers, first came to India to explore the country’s rich heritage. She returned the following year as an exchange student, and a couple of years later found herself working for an Indian consultancy firm. When asked what prompted her to stay on, Isabelle said, “I love the market dynamics here, working here is so much fun. Anywhere else would seem boring compared to India.” Having cofounded a company, she eventually realised her entrepreneurial dream here and now resides in Goa with her husband.

Isabelle says there are several aspects of life in India that remind her of home. “How we interact with our everyday life is similar in both Germany and India. Separate house slippers to wear at home, the celebration of food and festivals, the importance of friendship…” She feels Germany and India share the same spirit especially in terms of festivities. “We love food and we love celebrating food. There is an entire countdown to Christmas. Every day there is some dinner or get-together,” much like how Indians excitedly countdown to Navratri or Diwali. Franziska, who was born in India to German parents, adds that both the countries exhibit the same kind of passion for their favourite sport. “In India, they support cricket like anything while in Germany it would be football.”

Having lived in India for almost a decade, Isabelle has also noticed some broad similarities in the way children are brought up in the two countries. “We have a saying in South Germany ‘Schaffe Schaffe Hausle baue’ that loosely translates to ‘work, work, work and build a house’. I found that parents here have a similar outlook…to teach their children to work hard. They feel that they’ve fulfilled their duty only once the children have moved out or gotten married. Also, my mother never let me leave the house without a big breakfast. It’s the same here.” The importance given to the care of the family is one similarity that came up again and again in conversations with all German expats.

While most people wouldn’t draw parallels between German and Indian discipline (or lack thereof), Germans married to Indians have found a way to bridge the gap. Take for example, Ilka, who thinks that the famed differences of discipline between the two cultures actually works to her marital advantage. She sees the difference as Germans being highly planning-oriented; while Indians are more flexible in their approach. Ilka and her husband balance each other out in several ways. She says, like most Germans, she too tends to get stressed when her plans don’t work out, but her husband calms her down.

Consequently, Ilka feels India is “so full of life. The social life here is more happening; people smile at you, bond over food and are much more relaxed.” Isabelle, too, can attest to Indians’ friendliness. When asked about an Indian characteristic that makes her feel most at home, she quickly answers “humour.” “Whether it’s a taxi driver or someone I’m meeting professionally, I’ve learnt that it’s easy to lighten the mood here by just cracking a few jokes. Indians love to laugh,” she adds.

Indeed, these Germans-who-never-left as just diehard Indophiles are more Indian than you’d guess at first, having even developed some classic Indian skills with time. Ilka assures us that her husband can’t bargain as well as she does, and that she can even drape a saree on her own.

Isabelle, meanwhile, feels some amount of Indianness has seeped into her because “whenever its raining, my body instantly craves chai and samosa”.

Like the long-settled German expats in India, the German airline, Lufthansa, too has incorporated some quintessential aspects of Indian culture in its service. Recognising the centuries-old cultural affinity between the two countries, Lufthansa now provides a rich experience of Indian hospitality to all flyers on board its flights to and from India. You can expect a greeting of Namaste by an all-Indian crew, Indian food, and popular Indian in-flight entertainment options. And as the video shows, India’s culture and hospitality have been internalized by Lufthansa to the extent that they are More Indian Than You Think. To experience Lufthansa’s hospitality on your next trip abroad, click here.


This article was produced by the Scroll marketing team on behalf of Lufthansa as part of their More Indian Than You Think initiative and not by the Scroll editorial team.