On January 25, 2011, mass protests against police brutality, poverty, lack of freedom of expression, etc under the rule of President Hosni Mubarak broke out across Egypt. By adopting methods like demonstrations, marches, and civil disobedience, the revolution lasted a little over two weeks and resulted in Mubarak being overthrown.

Tahrir (liberation) Square in Egypt’s capital Cairo became the centre of the protests against Mubarak’s atrocities. The prominent plaza was occupied by protestors for days and saw many clashes with the pro-government forces.

Dr Gene Sharp, an expert on non-violent revolution, has often been credited with the strategy behind toppling the Egyptian government, BBC News had reported in 2011. Sharp believes that “the power of dictatorships comes from the willing obedience of the people they govern – and that if the people can develop techniques of withholding their consent, a regime will crumble”, the report added.

The army ruled the country before the general elections resulted in the victory of the Muslim Brotherhood in June 2012. Mohamed Morsi became the new President of Egypt. This was, however, not the end of struggle for the country’s citizens.

Morsi’s attempt to pass an Islamic-leaning constitution and the measures he took to make sure that his decisions are not countered resulted in another mass protest movement across the country in June 2013. On July 3, 2013, the Egyptian army, led by Defence Minister General Abdel Fattah El-Sisi staged a coup, deposing Morsi as president. Al-Sisi went on to become the president of the country in 2014.