In fact, Nathuram Godse was a life-long member of the RSS, attaining the position of baudhik karyavah (intellectual worker).
His statement at the murder trial (originally published in 1977, in a volume entitled May It Please Your Honour) says, “I am one of those volunteers who joined the Sangha in its initial stage’ (p. 142). He says he left it to do more directly political work in the Hindu Mahasabha (he does not say when). But his brother Gopal Godse suggests that he never really left the RSS, and that the statement at his trial was meant to alleviate the pressure on the Sangh, which was banned following Gandhiji’s murder. A leader of the Hindu Mahasabha, Shyama Prasad Mookherjee, went on to found the Jana Sangh, forerunner of the BJP.
Mere membership does not, of course, mean responsibility: the BJP does not necessarily have to answer for the actions of each person ever associated with the Sangh Parivar.
But in this case, the chickens have come home to roost. Gopal Godse reacts to Advani’s statement angrily and calls it the response of a coward. The politics of swayamsevaks like the Godses does not differ too greatly from that of the RSS and the BJP today. The BJP’s campaign slogan in the recent elections, “Hum ne jo kaha, so kiye” (What we said, we did), boasting of an event that consumed thousands of lives, denotes an implacability of resolve at least equal to Nathuram’s.
Meeting Gopal Godse himself is helpful in uncovering any affinities that might exist between his politics and that of the Sangh Parivar. He lives in the heart of old Pune, in Sadashiv Peth, in a new apartment building called Vinayak. His flat shares a landing with a bank, and, in that busy space, it is startling to see the names in Devanagari script in prominent red on the door: “Shri Gopal Godse. Sow. Sunita Godse.”
He opens the door. Gandhiji’s murderer, you think, but there he is, a tall, slightly bent man in pyjamas and an old yellow sleeveless sweater.
You scan his appearance for signs of what might make him different. But, as in most scandals, one experiences the shock of banality on meeting its perpetrator. He looks, for all purposes, like any other Chitpavan Brahmin one sees in Sadashiv Peth – a frail old man, albeit with hooded eyes. He remains proud of his Chitpavan heritage. He smiles slightly and lowers his gaze – the half-conscious reaction, perhaps, to a lifetime of notoriety.
A large glass case dominates the drawing room decorations. It con- tains a small silver urn surrounded by photographs. In the urn are the ashes of Nathuram Godse and Narayan Apte. The pictures are of them and of V.D. Savarkar. Just below the case is a porcelain plate with Savarkar’s portrait. His motto, ‘Hinduise all politics and militarise Hindudom’, encircles the picture. Although ‘honourably acquitted’ of conspiring to kill Gandhi, Savarkar was nevertheless a close associate of Nathuram Godse. Gopal Godse’s daughter, Asilata, has married Ashok Savarkar, son of Savarkar’s younger brother Narayan. Both families are still close to the Hindu Mahasabha (the party Nathuram belonged to and Savarkar was president of for several years); Gopal Godse was until recently its general secretary.
He is eager to talk. ‘Greedy to spread his message’, as he puts it – to justify his brother’s act, and to propagate the concept of Hindu Rashtra which, he feels, is the only answer to the country’s political problems.
He is polite and courteous; though his views may be offensive in the extreme, he tries not to let his manners impede the reception of his ideas. It is hard for most people to conceive of Gandhiji’s killers as other than demented or demonic. This is obviously a matter very much on his own mind. He is constrained to refute the myth that Nathuram was a madman or a fanatic. ‘You may disagree with his views, but you must first consider his arguments’, Gopal says.
He rejects all existing political parties except the Hindu Mahasabha. Every other party, he says, is guilty of pandering to the Muslims and conse- quently endangering the nation. Similar criticisms of the BJP, however, are made by several within the RSS itself. Godse’s views themselves have much in common with those of the BJP. India is nothing if not Hindu – this is the theme he tirelessly stresses, in one variation after another. Muslims do not have their original place of worship within this country, and it is essential, in his view (derived from Savarkar), that one’s place of birth is also one’s holy land. Muslims can be loyal only to Pakistan; every Muslim in India is a Pakistani agent, he says.
…Godse’s ideas are in a continuum with Hindu right-wing thought today.
If you turn to MS Golwalkar, the RSS leader, the confirmation of a continuity with Godse’s views is even more emphatic:
When we say ‘This is the Hindu Nation’, there are some who immediately come up with the question, ‘What about the Muslims and Christians. . .?’ They are born in this land, no doubt. But are they true to their salt? . . . Do they feel a duty to serve her? No! . . . They look to some foreign lands as their holy places. . . . They have cut off their ancestral moorings of this land (sic) and mentally merged themselves with the aggressors. They still think that they have come here only to conquer and establish their kingdoms. So we see that it is not merely a case of change of faith, but a change even in national identity. What else is it, if not treason, to join the camp of the enemy leaving their mother-nation in the lurch? (Bunch of Thoughts, pp. 166–67)
Every Muslim, for Golwalkar as for Godse, is a foreign agent with little to do but engage in anti-national activities, usually of a violent kind:
The Muslims are busy hatching a dangerous plot, piling up arms and mobi- lizing their men and probably biding their time to strike from within when Pakistan decides upon an armed conflict with our country. . . . Not that our leaders do not know it. The secret intelligence reports reach them all right. But it seems they have in view only elections. Elections means vote-catching, which means appeasing certain sections. . . . And the Muslims are one such solid bloc. Therein lies the root of all this appeasement and consequent disastrous effects. (Bunch of Thoughts, pp. 239–40).
Compare this with Gopal Godse:
They make bomb blasts in Bombay in the name of the Koran. They will continue because the Koran is very clear. They want to Islamize their complete world. And the secularism is the most fertile ground for them to do it. . . . Outside, what happens today, for Haj, a Muslim who is a smuggler goes there. And a Pakistani minister goes there. They join there together under the name of Islam. They dictate what is to be done in India. . . . So all con- spiracies go on in the name of Islam. And we allow it. (Personal interview)
The true Hindu patriot has two enemies: the Muslim and the ‘secular’ (nowadays pseudo-secular) government. The Muslim’s danger is well known and unambivalent, whereas that of the secularists is much less so. Parading itself as tolerant and pluralistic, the secular government is actually calculating and selfish, and will lead the nation to disaster. Only in Hindutva is such narrow selfishness overcome, as individual identity merges with the nation. In these ideas, Godse and the RSS “guru”, Golwalkar, are unanimous.
It must be conceded that the BJP and the RSS are more sensitive to public opinion, to the practicality of actually getting something done, as opposed to landing up behind bars or in the gallows after having made a ‘statement’ of some kind.
Especially with the BJP, a party primarily seeking power, the ideas its leaders express are often serviceable means to an end rather than deep convictions. In this respect, the saying goes, BJP minus RSS equals Congress (a witticism that says as much about the Congress as about the BJP). It is the RSS which is the backbone of the Hindutva party and which makes the BJP different from other parties.
The habit of seeing dangerous conspiracies everywhere, of calling for rooting out a scourge that threatens the nation, is itself sign of a paranoid mentality that in the US, for instance, was called McCarthyism. Perhaps we should cease calling a paranoid and violent politics by its own preferred name of ‘Hindutva’, and thereby deny it any respectable cover. Advani’s disavowal of Nathuram Godse’s connection with the RSS flies in the face of the well-documented connections between them and the essential similarity of their ideas, as suggested by Nathuram’s published statements, as well as Gopal Godse’s own words. The Janata Dal slogan against the BJP in the recent elec- tions summed it up: “Muh me Ram aur dil me Nathuram” (Ram on their lips and Nathuram in their hearts).
(First published in Frontline, 28 January 1994.)
Excerpted with permission from Beyond Doubt: A Dossier on Gandhi’s Assassination, compiled and introduced by Teesta Setalvad, Tulika Books.