air pollution

Bad air quality is a public problem, yet election campaigns in five states were silent on it

Eleven of the world's 20 most polluted cities are in Punjab, Uttarakhand and Uttar Pradesh, which went to polls this month.

I learned the hard way last year that air pollution causes pneumonia. Over the past few months, I have realised it must also cause amnesia. Five states went to polls in February, and one issue that was, and is, glaringly missing from many campaigns is air pollution.

According to the World Health Organisation, 11 of the 20 most polluted cities in India are in Punjab, Uttarakhand and Uttar Pradesh, three of those five states. Polling concluded in the first two states on February 4 and February 15, respectively, while the process in underway in the last state. Given that air pollution is deadly for babies and the elderly, and can make the rest of us sick, it is surprising that more people aren’t clamouring for a breath of fresh air. After the record-breaking pollution highs across North India in November, which sparked protests in the Jantar Mantar area in Delhi, air pollution has largely fallen off the public radar. Why could that be?

One reason could be because people who would be more vocal about demanding better air from the government have purchased private solutions such as air purifiers and masks to protect themselves against air pollution. However, research published by me and my colleagues in December shows that while these private solutions are certainly better than nothing, the only way to really protect oneself is through public action that reduces outdoor pollution levels.

Inadequate protection

Last winter, I was on a mission with my colleagues to create a clean air environment. In the process, we learned that this is quite difficult to achieve in a place like Delhi. We tested a few of the most affordable air purifiers containing filters that capture the vast majority of the really small and harmful particles in a room in our office in Hauz Khas. Over the course of a month, we conducted 72 tests, each lasting three hours.

We found substantial reductions in particulate pollution indoors, but the pollution levels achieved in the test room at the end of the tests were often still worse than in cities considered to be polluted. In some cases, the air quality got no better than the air outdoors in an industrial area near Shanghai, China, a place known for very high pollution levels. Although the air in the room was less polluted than without the purifier, it was still bad enough to make people sick.

Why are air purifiers struggling in places like Delhi? That’s because many homes don’t do such a great job of keeping the outdoor air out, even in the more expensive neighbourhoods. Even if no indoor activity that generates pollution is taking place – such as cooking, cleaning, or burning incense – outdoor air seeps under and around closed doors, windows, exhaust fans, and installed air-conditioning units, making it difficult for air purifiers to keep up.

We also often have to spend time in public places where installing an air purifier would be impractical or ineffective. Although masks may be a good alternative when we are exposed to ambient air, wearing one for a long time can be uncomfortable. Trust me, I have even tried sleeping in one.

Using masks and air purifiers in well-sealed rooms can certainly provide some protection to those who have them, but the vast majority of North Indians do not have air purifiers in their homes. The cost of the least expensive air purifier containing a filter that traps the small particles is roughly equivalent to one month of per capita expenditure for the average urban Indian, making the devices unattainable to the vast majority.

Emergency plan

In January, the Environment Ministry released a plan of action that would come into effect when Delhi’s pollution levels become “severe” by India’s air quality standards. This would include emergency measures such as a ban on construction and the odd-even car rationing plan. While this is an important step in the right direction, it is not a long-term plan for tackling the persistently high levels of pollution throughout the year across North India, or preventing severe pollution from occurring in the first place.

Approaches that rely on private solutions to the public problem of increasingly bad air quality are insufficient both for lower and middle-class households who may not be able to afford these solutions, and for rich households who can. By all means, buy an air purifier for your home. But don’t kid yourself that it is enough to make you safe. So, when you’re done setting up your purifier, contact your MLA to ask what is being done to solve the problem for everybody and improve the air that is still seeping into your house.

Sangita Vyas is a managing director at r.i.c.e.

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“My body instantly craves chai and samosa”

German expats talk about adapting to India, and the surprising similarities between the two cultures.

The cultural similarities between Germany and India are well known, especially with regards to the language. Linguists believe that Sanskrit and German share the same Indo-Germanic heritage of languages. A quick comparison indeed holds up theory - ratha in Sanskrit (chariot) is rad in German, aksha (axle) in Sanskrit is achse in German and so on. Germans have long held a fascination for Indology and Sanskrit. While Max Müller is still admired for his translation of ancient Indian scriptures, other German intellectuals such as Goethe, Herder and Schlegel were deeply influenced by Kalidasa. His poetry is said to have informed Goethe’s plays, and inspired Schlegel to eventually introduce formal Indology in Germany. Beyond the arts and academia, Indian influences even found their way into German fast food! Indians would recognise the famous German curry powder as a modification of the Indian masala mix. It’s most popular application is the currywurst - fried sausage covered in curried ketchup.

It is no wonder then that German travellers in India find a quite a lot in common between the two cultures, even today. Some, especially those who’ve settled here, even confess to Indian culture growing on them with time. Isabelle, like most travellers, first came to India to explore the country’s rich heritage. She returned the following year as an exchange student, and a couple of years later found herself working for an Indian consultancy firm. When asked what prompted her to stay on, Isabelle said, “I love the market dynamics here, working here is so much fun. Anywhere else would seem boring compared to India.” Having cofounded a company, she eventually realised her entrepreneurial dream here and now resides in Goa with her husband.

Isabelle says there are several aspects of life in India that remind her of home. “How we interact with our everyday life is similar in both Germany and India. Separate house slippers to wear at home, the celebration of food and festivals, the importance of friendship…” She feels Germany and India share the same spirit especially in terms of festivities. “We love food and we love celebrating food. There is an entire countdown to Christmas. Every day there is some dinner or get-together,” much like how Indians excitedly countdown to Navratri or Diwali. Franziska, who was born in India to German parents, adds that both the countries exhibit the same kind of passion for their favourite sport. “In India, they support cricket like anything while in Germany it would be football.”

Having lived in India for almost a decade, Isabelle has also noticed some broad similarities in the way children are brought up in the two countries. “We have a saying in South Germany ‘Schaffe Schaffe Hausle baue’ that loosely translates to ‘work, work, work and build a house’. I found that parents here have a similar outlook…to teach their children to work hard. They feel that they’ve fulfilled their duty only once the children have moved out or gotten married. Also, my mother never let me leave the house without a big breakfast. It’s the same here.” The importance given to the care of the family is one similarity that came up again and again in conversations with all German expats.

While most people wouldn’t draw parallels between German and Indian discipline (or lack thereof), Germans married to Indians have found a way to bridge the gap. Take for example, Ilka, who thinks that the famed differences of discipline between the two cultures actually works to her marital advantage. She sees the difference as Germans being highly planning-oriented; while Indians are more flexible in their approach. Ilka and her husband balance each other out in several ways. She says, like most Germans, she too tends to get stressed when her plans don’t work out, but her husband calms her down.

Consequently, Ilka feels India is “so full of life. The social life here is more happening; people smile at you, bond over food and are much more relaxed.” Isabelle, too, can attest to Indians’ friendliness. When asked about an Indian characteristic that makes her feel most at home, she quickly answers “humour.” “Whether it’s a taxi driver or someone I’m meeting professionally, I’ve learnt that it’s easy to lighten the mood here by just cracking a few jokes. Indians love to laugh,” she adds.

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Isabelle, meanwhile, feels some amount of Indianness has seeped into her because “whenever its raining, my body instantly craves chai and samosa”.

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This article was produced by the Scroll marketing team on behalf of Lufthansa as part of their More Indian Than You Think initiative and not by the Scroll editorial team.