The news of discovery of gold mines with 3,500 tonnes of gold reserves in Uttar Pradesh’s Sonbhadra district broke in regional newspapers on February 20. Two days later, much of the Indian media, including Scroll.in, was abuzz with the news that the Sonbhadra mines had gold deposits estimated to be around 3,350 tonnes and worth Rs 12 lakh crore, which is almost five times India’s current gold reserve.
The reports quoted a District Mining Officer and estimated that with this find, India’s current gold reserves of 626 tonnes would jump to second place in the world behind the US, which holds 8,133.5 tonnes of gold.
Even though the reports mentioned “gold deposits”, they equated it to actual gold mined and added the entire 3,350 tonnes to India’s current gold reserve. Such exuberant reporting continued till later in the day when Geological Survey of India denied making any such discovery. In this article, Alt News will trace how the Indian media fell for unverified news.
The coverage in Jagran news specified that it is a discovery of gold ore and it quoted Rohtash Kumar, professor of geology of Benaras Hindu University, who explained that the amount of gold that can be extracted from it depends on the grading of the deposit. However, this is not how it was interpreted by the time the news reached English media.
One of the earliest tweets on Feb 20 interpreting 3,350 tonnes of gold ore as 3,350 tonnes of actual gold mined was Mahesh Hegde, founder of the dubious website, Postcard News. Hegde linked the finding to India’s gold reserves implying that the entire 3,350 tonnes would be added to India’s gold reserves. This line of thinking was subsequently parroted by several mainstream media outlets.
On February 21, the news was published by ANI. Curiously the ANI story quoted the District Mining Officer, KK Rai who claimed that there were 2,700 million tonnes of gold deposits in Son Pahadi and 650 millio tonnes in tje Hardi field. State broadcaster Doordarshan also tweeted the news and the statement of the mining officer. The tweet is now deleted.
A widely quoted story by The Times of India and the Economic Times researched the value of gold reserves of various countries and estimated that with this discovery, India’s gold reserve would jump to second place behind the US.
It is noteworthy that almost all the media outlets took the line of thinking that gold ore is the same as gold extracted. A Money Control report was a little more specific about the discovery being “gold ore”, which gave a clue that the actual gold extracted would only be a fraction of the amount. However, like the others, the story here also stated that the discovery was five times India’s current reserve.
Oblivious to the distinction between gold ore and actual gold mined, there was massive celebration on media as well as social media. Predictably, soon enough, the ruling party in the state was given credit for the discovery. “Yogi Adityanath strikes gold,” read a Financial Express headline which was extensively shared on social media crediting the Uttar Pradesh Chief Minister for the find.
Ironically, it was a Financial Express article that had earlier accurately reported on February 21 that the deposits had estimated gold reserves of 52,806 tonne and the inferred grade as 3.04 gram/tonne.
The news made it to TV news shows, devoid of any fact-checks. From Aaj Tak saying that India would be a golden bird again to ABP News declaring that the hillock would change India’s fortunes forever, the TV channels went over the top in describing the find.
Though there had been no statement confirming the news from either the Ministry of Mines or the Geological Survey of India, Hardeep Singh Puri, Union Minister for Housing and Urban Affairs and Civil Aviation, tweeted that after the massive gold discovery in Sonbhadra, India would now have the world’s second-largest gold reserves.
Uttar Pradesh Deputy Chief Minister KP Maurya went on to make statement to the media that the discovery would help in making India financially strong.
Reserve Bank of India Director S Gurumurthy tweeted about the possibility of India controlling the world gold market.
No discovery of gold
However, it turned out that there no such discovery of gold had been made. “GSI has not estimated such kind of vast resource of gold deposits in Sonbhadra district,” Geological Survey of India Director General M Sridhar told PTI.
The Geological Survey of India issued a press release on Saturday, clarifying that the exploration was carried out in field season 1998-99 and 1999-2000 and stating that “the mineralised zone having an average grade of 3.03 grams per tonne of gold is tentative in nature and the total gold which can be extracted from the total resource of 52,806.25 tonnes of ore is approximately 160 kg and not 3,350 tonnes as mentioned in the media”.
Deposits reported in previous years as well
Since the exploration was carried out in 1998-2000, there is in fact no new discovery. Alt News found that even an October 2011 report of the Ministry of Mines contained reference to this claimed discovery . The image below shows a reference to .053 mt (million tonnes) which is the same as 53,000 tonnes and matches with 52,806.25 tonnes of ore in the Geological Survey of India press release.
Gold Ore v/s Gold extracted
It was amply clear that both media and social media users were confused between gold ore and actual gold mined. The proportion of gold contained in the ore of a particular mine is represented in grams per metric ton. According to the World Gold Council, better-quality underground mines contain around 8 g/t to 10 g/t gold, marginal underground mines average around 4 g/t to 6 g/t gold and open-pit mines range from 1 g/t to 4 g/t gold.
This means that even if the Sonbhadra gold deposit was of a high 1 0g/t grade, 3,500 tonnes of gold ore would translate into 35 kgs of gold. The number, however, as clarified by the Geological Survey, is actually 52,806.25 tonnes of ore which for the average grade of 3.03 g/t would potentially translate into 160 kg of gold.
It turns out that media outlets amplified the misinformation without even a basic fact check.
This article first appeared on Alt News.