India might not have much to write home about when it comes to tourist arrivals when compared to the rest of the world, but the industry is nevertheless tremendously important for the country. Despite its size and the wealth of sites to visit, India counted as only the 38th-most visited nation according the United Nations. Despite this, data from the Ministry of Tourism suggests that the sector has a significant impact on the country’s economy.
According to estimates prepared by the National Council for Applied Economic Research, tourism contributes as much as 6.77% to India’s total Gross Domestic Product through direct and indirect impact. To put this in context, this is nearly as much as India’s much touted Information Technology-Business Process Outsourcing industry, which contributes around 7.5% to the economy according to industry body NASSCOM.
Even if you discount the indirect impact, the numbers are impressive. The NCAER study estimated a direct impact of 3.8% towards the overall GDP, as compared to just 2% for India’s mining sector, according to industry body FICCI.
The sector is no slacker when it comes to employment either, according to the study, entitled the Tourism Satellite Account. “In terms of employment, this TSA showed that direct share of employment in tourism service industries is 4.4% and if indirect share is also included, this goes up to 10.2%,” the study reported. “This implies almost every 4th to 5th person employed in non-agricultural activities is directly or indirectly engaged in tourism activities.”
But simply because tourism is having a big impact on the economy shouldn’t be a reason to rejoice. The tourism ministry’s data also shows another, much more problematic trend. Although foreign tourist arrivals in India have continued to grow for the last few years, reaching nearly 6.9 million people in 2013, the relative growth has dipped sharply.
From 26% in 2004 to just 5.9% in 2013, growth of foreign tourist arrivals is a serious cause of concern. Although some of this is due to an international slowdown in tourism in the aftermath of the economic crisis of 2008, which meant India actually received 2.2% fewer tourists in 2009 as compared to the year before, there are plenty of homegrown factors to blame for the plateauing.
Visa and paperwork problems as well as inadequate infrastructure are among the most serious problems that foreigners often complain about, while concerns about safety have risen in the last few years.
This is made evident by a comparison with a few other smaller nations that receive far more tourists than India does. Thailand, for example, got four times the number of visitors in 2013 that India did — a clear suggestion that even in a bad economy, India’s tourism sector is still badly underperforming.
Making transportation more sustainable even with fuel-based automobiles
These innovations can reduce the pollution caused by vehicles.
According to the WHO’s Ambient Air Pollution Database released in 2016, ten of the twenty most polluted cities in the world are in India, with Gwalior and Ahmedabad occupying the second and third positions. Pollution levels are usually expressed in the levels of particulate matter (PM) in the air. This refers to microscopic matter that is a mixture of smoke, metals, chemicals and dust suspended in the atmosphere that can affect human health. Particulate matter is easily inhaled, and can cause allergies and diseases such as asthma, lung cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Indian cities have some of the highest levels of PM10 (particles smaller than 10 micrometres in diameter) and PM2.5 particles (particles smaller than 2.5 micrometres in diameter). The finer the particulate matter, the deeper into your lungs it can penetrate causing more adverse effects. According to WHO, the safe limits for PM2.5 is 10 micrograms per cubic meter.
Emissions resulting from transportation is regarded as one of the major contributors to pollution levels, especially particulate matter. A study conducted by the Centre for Ecological Sciences of the Indian Institute of Science estimated that the transport sector constitutes 32% of Delhi’s emissions. It makes up 43% of Chennai’s emissions, and around 17% of Mumbai’s emissions.
Controlling emissions is a major task for cities and auto companies. The Indian government, to this end, has set emission standards for automobiles called the Bharat Stage emission standard, which mirrors European standards. This emission standard was first instituted in 1991 and has been regularly updated to follow European developments with a time lag of about 5 years. Bharat Stage IV emission norms have been the standard in 2010 in 13 major cities. To tackle air pollution that has intensified since then, the Indian government announced that Bharat Stage V norms would be skipped completely, and Stage VI norms would be adopted directly in 2020.
But sustainability in transport requires not only finding techniques to reduce the emissions from public and private transport but also developing components that are environment friendly. Car and auto component manufacturers have begun optimising products to be gentler on the environment and require lesser resources to manufacture, operate and maintain.
There are two important aspects of reducing emissions. The first is designing vehicles to consume less fuel. The second is making the emissions cleaner by reducing the toxic elements.
In auto exteriors, the focus is on developing light-weight but strong composite materials to replace metal. A McKinsey study estimates that plastic and carbon fibre can reduce weight by about 20% and 50% respectively. A lighter body reduces the engine effort and results in better fuel economy. Additionally, fuel efficiency can be increased by reducing the need for air conditioning which puts additional load on the vehicle engine thereby increasing fuel consumption. Automotive coatings (paints) and sheets provide better insulation, keep the vehicle cool and reduce the use of air conditioning.
Most emissions are the result of inefficient engines. Perhaps the most significant innovations in making automobiles and mass transport systems more eco-friendly are being done in the engine. Innovations include products like fuel additives, which improve engine performance, resist corrosion and reduce fuel consumption while offering a great driving experience, and catalytic converters that reduce toxic emissions by converting them to less harmful output such as carbon dioxide, Nitrogen and water. Some of these catalytic converters are now capable of eliminating over 90 percent of hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides.
All of these are significant measures to bring the negative impacts of vehicular pollution under control. With over 2 million vehicles being produced in India in 2015 alone and the moving to BS VI emission standards, constant innovation is imperative.
Beyond this, in commercial as well as passenger vehicles, companies are innovating with components and processes to enable higher resource efficiency. Long-lasting paint coatings, made of eco-friendly materials that need to be refreshed less often are being developed. Companies are also innovating with an integrated coating process that enables carmakers to cut out an entire step of coating without compromising the colour result or the properties of the coating, saving time, materials and energy. Efforts are being made to make the interiors more sustainable. Parts like the instrument panel, dashboard, door side panels, seats, and locks can all be created with material like polyurethane plastic that is not only comfortable, durable and safe but also easily recyclable. Manufacturers are increasingly adopting polyurethane plastic like BASF’s Elastollan® for these very reasons.
From pioneering the development of catalytic converters in 1975 to innovating with integrated process technology for coatings, BASF has always been at the forefront of innovation when it comes to making transport solutions more sustainable. The company has already developed the technology to handle the move of emissions standards from BS IV to BS VI.
For the future, given the expected rise in the adoption of electric cars—an estimated 5~8 percent of car production is expected to be pure electric or plug-in electric vehicles by 2020—BASF is also developing materials that enable electric car batteries to last longer and achieve higher energy density, making electronic mobility more feasible. To learn more about how BASF is making transport more sustainable, see here.
Watch the video to see how automotive designers experimented with cutting edge materials from BASF to create an innovative concept car.
This article was produced by the Scroll marketing team on behalf of BASF and not by the Scroll editorial team.